Cancer is a disease in which some of the body’s cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells.
Cancers are named according to the tissues from which they arise
1)Sarcoma-Malignancy in structural tissues
4) Leukemia-White blood cells
Causes for cancer
Majority of the cancers are caused by living habits and some environmental factors
⭐ Tobacco:Nearly 35% of all cancer deaths are due to usage of tobacco in some form.Atleast 90% of lung cancer deaths are due to smoking.Smoking can also affect gastro-intestinal tract,pancreas,genito-urinary tract and upper respiratory passage.Snuff and chewing tobacco can affect mouth and respiratory tracts.Smoke inhaled by non-smokers can also cause lung cancer and blood cancer.
⭐ Exposure to ionising radiations such as x-rays,gamma rays,uv Ray’s can produce cancer.These radiations rupture DNA strands, causing mutations.Solar radiations can cause skin cancers.
⭐Physical irritants,such as continues abrasion of the linings of the intestinal tract by some types of food can also lead to cancer.Dietary substances such as fast,high calorie intake of animal proteins,salted or smoked food can cause cancer in breast,colon, stomach and oesonophages.
⭐ Certain drugs if taken without medical advice can cause cancer.
⭐Viruses and parasite organisms like schistosoma,liverfluke can also affect.
Cancer and death
A severe onset of cancer ends in the death of a person.It is because of the unique characteristics of the cancer cells.The growth of normal cells is controlled by certain factors.However the cancer cells do not require the growth factors.Hence these cells do not respect usual cellular growth limits.Normal cells have a nature of remaining together in tissues.But the cancer cells are less adhesive to each other.Hence they wander through the tissues and enter the blood.They can be transported to all parts of the body and cause new cancer growths.
The cancer cells rapidly multiply.Some cancers also produce angiogenic factors that cause many new blood vessels to grow into the cancer.Thus these cells will drain all the nutrients and normal cells get deprived of food.Ultimately the normal cells and tissues suffer nutritive death.
Management of cancer
⭐ The treatment or management of cancer depends on an accurate diagnosis.Diagnosis is made through microscopic observations,study of markers on the surface of cells,cytochemical methods, cytogenetics and various scanning and X-ray diagnostic methods.
⭐ After diagnosis, treatment of cancer involves surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal treatments.
⭐ Surgery is used for initial diagnosis of cancer as well. Sometimes a solid lump or tumor is removed surgically and tissues are examined under the microscope for cancer. This is both a diagnostic and therapeutic use of surgery. Most people with cancer will have some type of surgery. If the cancer has not spread to other organs and tissues, surgery usually helps increase chances of survival to a great extent.
⭐ Chemotherapy:This treatment uses powerful drugs that destroy the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is delivered orally (pills) or through an intravenous (IV) line.
⭐ Radiotherapy:Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.
⭐ Targeted therapy:Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. Learn how targeted therapy works against cancer and about common side effects that may occur.
Inspite of all advances in diagnostic and treatment,the death rate due to cancer is greater, Primary prevention of cancer will be a greater alternative to diagnosis and treatment.Consumption of fibrous food and avoidance of fatty food will avoid tumours related to alimentary canal.
Thus it is apparent that fight against cancer will be successful with early detection and appropriate education for avoidance.