Rape and Its Types

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What is Rape?

It is a type of sexual assault which usually involves sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person’s consent. It could be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority, or against a person who is incapable of giving valid consent, or is below the legal age of consent.

In other words rape can be defined in most jurisdictions as sexual intercourse committed by a perpetrator against a victim without their consent. The definition of rape can be considered inconsistent between health organizations, law enforcement, health providers, and legal professions.

Rape is the fourth most common crime against women in India. According to the 2019 Annual Report of the National Crime Records Bureau, 32033 rape cases were registered across the country, or an average of 88 cases daily, slightly lower than 2018 when 91 cases were registered daily. Of these, 30,165 rapes were committed by perpetrators known to the victim (94.2 % of cases), a high number similar to 2018. The share of victims who were minors or below 18 – the legal age of consent – stood at 15.4%,down from 27.8% in 2018. On the other hand, rapes by juveniles remained high in India with 3 minors being arrested for rape, assault and attempted violence on women and girls each day in 2019.

Types of Rape:-

The types of rape are as follows:-

Date Rape:-

Date Rape is used to refer a non-domestic rape committed by someone who knows the victim, and drug facilitated sexual assault where the perpetrator intentionally drugs the victim with a date rape drug so that they are incapacitated. 

Gang Rape:-

This type of rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim. Nowadays gang rape is widely reported to occur in many parts of the world.

Spousal Rape:-

Spousal rape is also known as marital rape, wife rape, this kind of rape between a married or couple without one spouse’s consent. Spousal rape is considered a form of domestic violence and sexual abuse.

Rape of Children:-

Rape of a child is a form of child sexual abuse.. When committed by a parent or other close relatives such as grandparents, aunts and uncles, it is also incest and can result in serious and long-term psychological trauma.

Statutory Rape:-

It is a non-forcible sexual activity in which one of the individual is below the age of consent (the age required to legally consent to the behaviour).  It usually refers to adults engaging in sexual activities with minors under the age of consent.

Prison Rape:-

This is the rape which occurs in the prison. This phrase is commonly used to describe rape of inmates by other inmates, less commonly to the rape of inmates by staff, and rarely to rape of staff by inmates.

Serial Rape:-

A Serial Rape is rape committed by a single person over a relatively long period of time and has committed on a number of victims. Most of the times these types of rapist are unknown to the victim and they follow a specific and predictable pattern of targeting and assaulting their victims.

Payback Rape:-

It is a form of rape which consists of the rape of a female, usually by a group of several males, as a revenge for acts committed by the members of her family, such as her father or brothers or husband or sons. This rape is meant to humiliate and bring shame upon the father or brothers or husband or sons, as punishment for their prior behaviour towards the perpetrators. 

War Rape:-

These kind of rapes are committed by soldiers, combatants or civilians during a conflict or war, or during military occupation. It also covers the situation where girls and women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power. During war, rape is often used as a means of psychological warfare in order to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale. 

Rape by Deception:-

When the perpetrator obtains the victim’s agreement to engage in sexual intercourse or other sexual acts, but gained it by deception, such as false statements or actions.

Corrective Rape:-

Corrective Rape is a hate crime in which one or more people are raped because of their perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. The common intended consequence of this rape, as seen by the perpetrator is to turn the victim heterosexual or to enforce conformity with gender stereotypes.

Custodial Rape:-

Rape perpetrated by a person employed by the state in a supervisory or custodial position, such as a police officer, public servant or hospital employee. This includes the rape of children in institutional care such as orphanages or crèche.

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