The Indus Valley Civilization is one of the world’s oldest civilization.It is popularly known as Harappan Civilization because the first territory to be carved was ‘Harappa’ in the year 1921 under the oversight of Daya Ram Sahni.
The extent of this civilization:
- In the west is up to Sutkagendor in Baluchistan ( now it is a part of Pakistan ).
- Alamgirpur ( Uttar Pradesh ) in the East.
- Daimabad ( Maharashtra ) in south.
- & Manda ( J & K ) in the north.
This Civilization refer to Bronze Age/ Chatholic Age. Thus, it is also called Bronze Age Civilization.
Some General Facts About Sites located in this Civilization
- It had working floors consisting of rows of circular brick platforms which were meant for threshing grain have been found here.
- Six granaries and sixteen Agnikundas ( firepits ) have been found here.
- People here knew the process of making tarcoal.
- Main gate for the entry in the houses of Harappa was in the North Direction.
- Mohenjodaro was discovered in 1992 under the supervision of R.D.Bannerji
- The literal definition of Mohenjodaro in Sindhi language is “Mound of the Dead”.
- There found some evidences that shows how properly assembled were the halls,kitchen, & courtyard were.
- Seven layers of Mohenjodaro city directs that the city was destroyed and rebuilt seven times.3.
- A dockyard have been found at Lothal.
- In 1957, Lothal was found by S.R.Rao in Gulf of Cambay Gujarat.
- Red & Black clay pots, copper tools, brick built tank like structure,a bead making factory & a seal from Iran have been discovered at Lothal.
- Also some liner scale of bronze have been found here.
Besides locales of this civilization there are some more amazing facts such as :
1.Town Planning : It was one of the most distinguishable feature of this civilization.Hence ,this civilization also known as first Urbanization.
2.Economy : Agriculture & Animal husbandry were popular since that age.They used to grow crops like wheat,barley,cotton,mustard. Harappan domesticated sheep,goat,buffalo & pig.They also knew about Tiger,camel,elephant various birds etc however they were unaware of lions.
3.Crafts :The Harappa culture belongs to the Bronze Age,as the people were very well acquainted with the manufacture and use bronze.The weavers also used to wove clothes of wool and cotton.Remains suggests that pottery was also done by people of this civilization. Some Seal were also found. However they were not aware of Iron.
4.Trade: Land and sea trade was in vogue.The most prominent trading partner was Mesopotamia.The mesopotamia inscription refer to trade relation with Meluha which was the ancient name given to Indus Region.
5.Religion: Pashupati seal has been found from Mohejodaro in which a Yogi figure has been depicted.The yogi on the seal is surrounded by buffalo,tiger,elephant,rhinoceros and dear.Hence the Yogi is said to be proto-Shiva.Harappans also worshipped Mother Goddess.
6.Script of Harappa: The Harappas knew the art of writing.There are nearly 4,000 specimens of Harappan writing on stone seals and other objects. Harappan Script is not alphabetical but mainly pictographic.
7.Decline of Harappan Civilization: There are several view points of the different historians on the decline of the Harappan Civilization.According to Wheeler Aryan attack was the cause of decline of Harappan Civilization & as per G.F.Dales and Marshal,Aryans were not responsible for the decline of this civilization.Also James Marshall stated that natural calamities were responsible for the decline of Harappan civilization.