Clothing technology

Clothing technology includes production, materials, and developed and implemented improvements. Major changes in the manufacture and distribution of clothing are included in the timeline of clothing and textiles technology.

The usage of technology has drastically altered clothes and fashion in the contemporary age, from clothing in the ancient world through modernity. The manufacturing of commodities changed as a result of industrialization. In many countries, handcrafted goods have been substantially displaced by factory-produced commodities purchased on assembly lines in a consumer culture. Man-made fabrics like polyester, nylon, and vinyl, as well as features like zippers and velcro, are among the innovations.


Gore-Tex is a waterproof, breathable fabric membrane and registered trademark of W. L. Gore & Associates. Invented in 1969, Gore-Tex can repel liquid water while allowing water vapor to pass through and is designed to be a lightweight, waterproof fabric for all-weather use. It is composed of stretched polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which is more commonly known by the generic trademark Teflon. The material is formally known as the generic term expanded PTFE (ePTFE).

Gore-Tex materials are typically based on thermo-mechanically expanded PTFE and other fluoropolymer products. They are used in a wide variety of applications such as high-performance fabrics, medical implantsfilter media, insulation for wires and cables, gaskets, and sealants. However, Gore-Tex fabric is best known for its use in protective, yet breathable, rainwear.

The simplest sort of rain wear is a two layer sandwich. The outer layer is typically woven nylon or polyester and provides strength. The inner one is polyurethane (abbreviated: PU), and provides water resistance, at the cost of breathability.

Early Gore-Tex fabric replaced the inner layer of PU with a thin, porous fluoropolymer membrane (Teflon) coating that is bonded to a fabric. This membrane had about 9 billion pores per square inch (around 1.4 billion pores per square centimeter). Each pore is approximately 120,000 the size of a water droplet, making it impenetrable to liquid water while still allowing the more volatile water vapour molecules to pass through.

The outer layer of Gore-Tex fabric is coated on the outside with a Durable Water Repellent (DWR) treatment. The DWR prevents the main outer layer from becoming wet, which would reduce the breathability of the whole fabric. However, the DWR is not responsible for the jacket being waterproof. Without the DWR, the outer layer would become soaked, there would be no breathability, and the wearer’s sweat being produced on the inside would fail to evaporate, leading to dampness there. This might give the appearance that the fabric is leaking, but it is not. Wear and cleaning will reduce the performance of Gore-Tex fabric by wearing away this Durable Water Repellent (DWR) treatment. The DWR can be reinvigorated by tumble drying the garment or ironing on a low setting.

Gore requires that all garments made from their material have taping over the seams, to eliminate leaks. Gore’s sister product, is similar to Gore-Tex in being windproof and breathable and it can stretch but it is not waterproof. The Gore naming system does not imply specific technology or material but instead specific set of performance characteristics.

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