Tourism is one among those economic activities that existed since the ancient times. During ancient and medieval era people travelled to experience the cultural differences. Over the time tourism has also evolved and has become a significant contributor to the national income of many countries. There are many nooks and corners of the world which solely depends on tourism and its allied activities for their living.
Earlier the main motive behind visiting places were to see and experience their culture along with enjoying the natural beauty of the area. But, in this era of globalization the scope of tourism has widened and many nations are trying to gain a competitive edge in this industry. Let us take a look at various types of tourism now prevailing around us:
Cultural tourism is a type of tourism that allows the tourist to participate in local cultural activities, like festivals and rituals. As a result, the tourist can enjoy a genuine cultural exchange with the locals.
Religious tourism, spiritual tourism, sacred tourism, or faith tourism, is a type of tourism with two main subtypes: pilgrimage, meaning travel for religious or spiritual purposes, and the viewing of religious monuments and artefacts, a branch of sightseeing.
Environmental tourism typically defined as travel to destinations where the flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the adverse effects of traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local people.
Health tourism is a form of tourism that consists of patients traveling to other countries to get medical treatment or assistance. It comprises all the services associated with tourism like transport, accommodation, and hospitality.
Culinary tourism is the focus on food as an attraction for exploration and a destination for tourism. Although food has always been a part of hospitality services for tourists, it was not emphasized by the tourism industry until the late 1990s.
Adventure tourism is defined as the movement of the people from one to another place outside their comfort zone for exploration or travel to remote areas, exotic and possibly hostile areas.
Enotourism, oenotourism, wine tourism, or vinitourism refers to tourism whose purpose is or includes the tasting, consumption or purchase of wine, often at or near the source.
Rural tourism focuses on actively participating in a rural lifestyle. It can be a variant of ecotourism. Many villages can facilitate tourism because many villagers are hospitable and eager to welcome (and sometime even host) visitors. Agriculture is becoming highly mechanized and therefore, requires less manual labor.
Sports tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event while staying apart from the tourists’ usual environment. Sport tourism is a fast-growing sector of the global travel industry and equates to $7.68 billion.
Ecotourism is defined as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the wellbeing of local people and involves interpretation and education”
Agro-tourism refers to people visiting working farms or other agricultural operations for the purpose of enjoyment, education, or other active involvement. Agri-tourism encompasses a wide variety of activities and provides a means for farmers to diversify and supplement their income.
Sustainable tourism is defined by the UN Environment Program and UN World Tourism Organization as “tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities.”
Space tourism is a type of space travel that allows individuals to visit outer space for the purpose of recreation or leisure. Suborbital flights, orbital trips, and missions to distant planets are all examples of space tourism
Business tourism is the provision of facilities and services to the millions of delegates who annually attend meetings, congresses, exhibitions, business events, incentive travel and corporate hospitality.
India is a country with wide scope for tourism. It should try to incentivize the emerging trends in tourism industry and strive to be a global leader.