Public Policy is new tool of Government to solve socio economic problems through several policies such as Agriculture Policy, Labour Policy, Health Policy, Education Policy, Wage Policy, Industrial Policy and Foreign Policy etc. Government view public policy as a dependent variable and study as to how society is evolving and Political system shaping the nation.
The field of public policy has emerged comparatively in beginning as traced in early 1950s. The concept of public policy was originated in 1951 from the publication of Harold Lasswell. According to Thomas R Dye, Public Policy is what Government will choose to do or not to do. In indian context, public policy could be government rules and Programmes in the form of political system of laws, ordinance, court decision, executive orders, decisions or even unspoken understanding of what is to be done.
Paul Appleby, the essence of public administrative decision policy defined as a purposed course of action of an individual a group, an Institution or government to realize a specific objective or purpose, within a given environment. The process of public policy flows both top to bottom and bottom to top or even simultaneously. The policy process is viewed from higher level as execution of Policy and viewing meta Policy meaning progressive.
After independence, India did not carry a specific structural path for economic development. It was decided that economic development must be based on social, political growth that transmutes human advancements. India adopted the Socio – economic development model in which major areas were industries and agriculture. Planning commission (now NITI Aayog) for the purpose of development initiatives adopted in a five year plan as a major development plan. structure policies Public policy developed as academic pursuit in the 1950s. However, Public Policy was very much evident in 1940, stimulating Government activities and academic organizations. Study of government, policy, Social Science involves political Science, public administration, economics and management.
Dimock stated public policy as “deciding at any time or place what objectives and substantive measures should be chosen in order to deal with particular problems”. Public Policy process structure to maximize and utilize all resources to overcome the catastrophic events. Public Policy is a continuous process, furiously working towards acquiring best outcomes. Righteous and accurate conditioning helps to bring desired aims. The process requires transparency, decentralization, and effective policy implementation. Public Policy Process is significant to change nation economic, social, and political representation especially in the Case of developing nations.
According to Chandler and Plano, treated public Policy as ” the strategic use of resources to alleviate national problems or governmental concerns”. Freeman and Sherwoods stated that it is the Public answer to the interest in refining the circumstances. Robert linebewy emphasized on “it is what governments do and fail to do for their citizens”. Anderson expresses it,” policy is being made as it is being administered as it is being made”.
Understanding of Public Policy
The Public Policy process is a kind of Physics equation that if finding a small error will cost the huge problem, also diffuses the whole processing mechanism. Public policy processes require pointed manifestation at each level. Hogwood and Gunn (Policy Analysis for the Real World, 1984) concluded nine vital Stages in the policy process: Agenda Setting, object screening issue defining , forecasting alternatives, objectives & priorities, policy implementation, monitoring and control, policy maintenance, succession and termination, these all required for successful policy. As we are aware, policy making is a complex and dynamic strategy, it requires certain tools to resolve the real world problem of economic, financial, economic, social problems. Public Policy enacted by the government or its executives with the help of civil Societies, media, and pressure groups.
In the Context of public policy process Lindblom stressed on a highly relative and plasticity decision making system characterised by compromise, incrementalism and continual adjustment. Public policy process is conceptualized as in sequence or stages ( Benson, Jordan, 2015). There are (1) sequence follows as – i) Problem emergence 2) agenda setting 13) Consideration of policy options, &) Decision making 5) implementation 6) evaluation (Jordan and Adelle, 2012).
A policy can be simple or complex, explicit or implicit, discretionary or detailed, private or public qualitative and quantitative. Government does not set advisory principles; it is the Supreme Court who decides and provides new interpretations of the articles of constitution to curve out the new Policy.
Nature of public policy covering wide portion of its activities such as socio- economic development, women empowerment, child labour, equality, education and so on. Nature of Public policy foremost needs Policy making closely related to decision-making. Decision making includes an identification of a problem, sharp analysis, and the ability to see alternatives. Policies have specific goals, It is absolute to expect a policy to indicate the direction towards. where actions are required. The choices of policies or its objectives are frequently mesmerized. Thus, goals and objectives depend on the values of the policy makers. Planning or formulation is a key component to move forward in the public policy process. Administrators must maintain a planner to know the portion of resources, investments because goals cannot be achieved without having proper planning. Policy Analysis is most significant to rectify any problem in process; it is a technique to use in Policy Process. Basically used for problem assessment and monitoring. Before the decisions, Similarly, Policy Management is also familiar with implementation. It deals with policy making and policy preparation process, it ensures it is producing good quality policies.
Thus, goals and objectives depend on the values of the policy makers. Planning or formulation is a key component to move forward in the public policy process. Administrators must maintain a planner to know the portion of resources, investments because goals cannot be achieved without having proper planning. Policy Analysis is most significant to rectify any problem in process; it is a technique to use in Policy Process. Basically used for problem assessment and monitoring. Before the decisions, Similarly, Policy Management is also familiar with implementation. It deals with policy making and policy preparation process, it ensures it is producing good quality policies.
Policy management should be considered as a loose point or giving no importance, it is an Icebreaker of Public Process, if you assess anything wrong at this stage, there will be high chance to “trash in” the policy. That is why policy analysis and policy management is interdependent.