Inflation is a general progressive elevation in the prices of services and goods within the economy. It denotes the rate of prices’ elevation within a specific duration. Inflation reduces the purchasing power of money since every unit of currency buys lesser services and goods. Generally, when inflation occurs, the income usually stays the same; however, the level of spending increases. The definition of inflation is the reduction of the purchasing power of a particular currency over a specific timeframe. Inflation is quantitatively estimated by reflecting the elevated average level of prices of selected services and goods within an economy over a given duration. Inflation in economics refers to the collective elevation in money supply, in prices or money incomes. Thus, inflation is an excessive increase in the general level of prices. The inflation concept in common parlance outlines inflation as a quantifier of the elevating rates of services and goods within the economy. In this light, inflation is deemed to occur due to an increase in prices when there is an elevation in the cost of production. However, inflation can occur when there is a demand for particular services and products because the buyers are willing to purchase the product at higher prices. Inflation also declines the value of money.
Types of Inflation.
Demand-pull Inflation emerges when the total demand for goods and supply is higher than the capacity of production in the market. An increase in demand with constant rate production creates a demand-supply gap. In this type of Inflation, demand is much higher than the production, which in turn increases the prices of goods and services.
Sudden shortfall of supply leads to a surge in the cost of production, which increases the rate of Inflation. For example, soap and shampoo prices may rise if the chemicals used in making these become costlier. This is known as cost – pull Inflation.
When the cost of wages of the workers increases, to keep up with their demand, the firm increases the cost of production, which leads to the rise in the cost of goods.
Inflation in India:
In India, the ministry of statistics and program implementation measures Inflation. India’s central bank i.e., The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), limits the inflation rate through its monetary policy by using tools such as repo rate, the reverse repo rate, CRR, etc. Inflation is measured by two indices in India, which is the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Wholesale Price index (WPI). CPI and WPI measure retail and wholesale level price changes, respectively. CPI measures the rise in prices of commodities and services such as medical care, food, education, etc. WPI captures goods or services sold by a business to smaller businesses for selling further.