The origin of biriyani in India is uncertain. Many theories are put forward in the origin of Biriyani in our country. The delicacy is considered as a food pride of our country. According to historian Lizzie Collingham, the modern biryani developed in the royal kitchens of the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) and is a mix of the native spicy rice dishes of India and the Persian pilaf.Indian restaurateur Kris Dhillon believes that the dish originated in Persia, and was brought to India by the Mughals. Pratibha Karan the author of the book “Biriyani” says that it is derived from a South origin dish called pilaf . She speculates that the pulao was an army dish in medieval India. Armies would prepare a one-pot dish of rice with whichever meat was available. Over time, the dish became biryani due to different methods of cooking, with the distinction between “pulao” and “biryani” being arbitrary.
The spices and condiments used in biryani may include ghee (clarified butter), nutmeg, mace,pepper, cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, bay leaves, coriander, mint leaves, ginger, onions, tomatoes, green chilies, and garlic. The premium varieties include saffron.
The main ingredient that usually accompanies the spices is chicken or goat meat; special varieties might use beef or seafood instead. The dish may be served with dahi chutney or raita, korma, curry, a sour dish of aubergine (brinjal), boiled egg, and salad.
VARIETIES OF BIRIYANI
There are many types of biryani, whose names are often based on their region of origin. For example, Sindhi biryani developed in the Sindh region of what is now Pakistan, and Hyderabadi biryani developed in the city of Hyderabad in South India.
Some have taken the name of the shop that sells it, for example: Haji Biriyani, Haji Nanna Biriyani in Old Dhaka, Fakhruddin Biriyani in Dhaka, Students biryani in Karachi, Lucky biryani in Bandra, Mumbai and Baghdadi biryani in Colaba, Mumbai. Biryanis are often specific to the Muslim communities where they originate; they are usually the defining dishes of those communities.
Calcutta or Kolkata biryani evolved from the Lucknow style, when Awadh’s last Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was exiled in 1856 to the Kolkata suburb of Metiabruz. Shah brought his personal chef with him. The Kolkata biriyani is characterized by the unique presence of potato in it, along with meat. It is said that the Nawab, having is lost his kingdom, could not afford meat, so his chefs tried to compensate by adding potato.
Biriyani is a dish which brings pride to our food culture