Different Categories of Bio-medical Waste

Biomedical waste is defined as any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings or animals, or in research activities pertaining thereto, or in the production or testing of biologicals.

There are almost 10 broad categories of biomedical waste and they have different ways of disposal as well. The categories of biomedical are disposed in different ways according to the needs so that it does not harm any living organism or human mainly.

1)Human Anatomical waste consisting of human tissues, organs and body parts.Deep burial or incineration
2)Animal waste which consists of animal tissues, organs, body parts, bleeding parts, fluid, blood, experimental animals used in research, discharge from hospitals.Deep burial or incineration
3)Microbiological and biotechnological waste which consists of wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimens of microbes they maybe live or attenuated, human or animal cell culture used for research in laboratories, toxins, waste from production of biological products, devices used to transfer the cultures.Incineration, autoclaving, microwaving
4)Waste sharps include needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glasses etc that may cause puncture or cuts. They consists of both used and unused.Disinfection which include chemical treatment, autoclaving, microwaving etc.
5)Discarded Medicines or cytotoxic drugs which include waste comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded medicines.Destruction or drug disposal in landfills and incineration
6)Solid Waste (I) are the items which include items contaminated with blood and body fluids including cotton, dressings, solid plaster casts, lines, beddings and anything contaminated with blood.Autoclaving or incineration
7)Solid Waste (II) are the item or wastes generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubings, intracenous sets etc.Disinfection by chemical treatment, autoclaving, microwaving and shredding
8)Liquid Waste consisting of waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, house-keeping and disinfecting activities.First disinfection by chemical treatment and then discharge into drains
9)Incineration Ash which is the ash from the incineration of any biomedical waste.Disposal in municipal landfill
10)Chemical Waste are the chemicals used in production of biologicals, chemicals used in disinfection as insecticides etc.Chemical discharge into drains for liquids and secured landfill for solids

Biomedical waste should be safely and efficiently identified, segregated, stored, transported and disposed after appropriate treatment. Its effective implementation in our community is of prime importance to protect public health and environment. With a growing population, biomedical waste is also growing in quantity in our country. Management of this waste is a rising concern in India. Segregation of Bio-Medical Waste at its origin is the key to the efficiency of waste management. Following regulations and scientifically managing Bio- Medical Waste is in the best interest of the public as well as the environment. It is really important to completely destroy the waste and it should be destroyed by following the norms so that it cannot transmit infection to anyone or harm anyone especially in present situation.

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