Agriculture is the main occupation in India, whilst it is more than an occupation, as it is regarded as the backbone of our country. It does not just a need or merely a source of livelihood but a way of life without which we could not imagine our existence on Earth. On a literal note agriculture means the production and cultivation of crops and livestock on a farm. It provides the highest contribution to national income and is currently the highest contributor to the GDP of India. It is the basic salient factor for the economic growth of a country on the same hand the development of agriculture is very prominent for a country’s development. It plays a crucial role and an integral part in the entire life of an economy which presses the need of its development. Speaking about the enhancement in the field of agriculture there are many methods and technologies in the contemporary world that contributes to its growth. Modern agriculture is the juncture where technologies and agriculture meets.
It is an evolving approach to many innovations in the agricultural field and farming practices that can help the farmers to augment efficiency by implementing several methods and reduce the number of natural resources like water, land, and energy necessary to meet the world’s food, fuel and fiber needs in a more effective form to increase productivity and decreasing environmental impact. It is driven by continuous improvement, using technology, digital tools and data. Precision agriculture allows the farmers to be more accurate that includes the use of Global Positioning Systems which results in the effectual use of resources.
Techniques in modern agriculture
Aeroponics system– It is the process where plants are grown in the air or mist environment without the use of soil. Plants grow in a soilless medium called rockwool. By using this method farmers will have better control over the amount of water to use. Lot of vegetables and fruits like beets, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, cucumber etc can be grown using this method.
Monoculture– It is the raising of a single crop within a specified area which in contrast to the traditional technique of farming , which relied on multiple crops being planted within a specific area. Many indoor farms growing medicinal herbs and flowers are measured to be monoculture farms. Monoculture farming is widely used in both industrial farming and organic farming and has allowed increased efficiency in planting and harvest. It reduced plant opposition for nutrients, space and solar radiation.
Drones in farming – It is an unmanned aerial vehicle applied to farming in order to help increase crop production and monitor crop growth. Sensors and digital capabilities can give farmers a well-heeled picture of their fields. The drones in agriculture have the potential to launch the agriculture industry into a future of sustainability. It is very effective at collecting data to help farmers improve crop health and allows farmers to gain immediate knowledge about the status of the fields.
Hybrid seed technology– It is a cross between two or more unrelated inbred plants. The two dissimilar varieties of plants are cross bred, resulting in a seed that carries one or more favorable traits. They are common in commercial farming, mainly to increase crop yields. It shows enhanced disease resistance, improved crop yields, increased flavor of fruits and vegetables.
Tissue culture – It is a method where the fragments of a tissue plant are introduced into a new, artificial environment, where they continue to function or grow. It is the expansion of tissues or cells separate from the organism. This is naturally facilitated via the use of a liquid, semi-solid or solid. such as broth or agar. It is a fast technique in which thousands of plants can be created in a few weeks time from a small amount of plant tissue and the plants are disease free.
Irrigation technologies-Water is one of the most essential factors in the deciding the survival of plants. The modern methods of irrigation include surface irrigation- flood irrigation, sprinkler- water is sprinkled or sprayed on plants which is similar to rainfall, drip – small diameter pipes with emitter or drippers that lie close to grounds and subsurface. The modern methods are better because it saves more water and also reduces the time and labor.