Intellectual disability

INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

Abstract

One of the tenth person in the world have some kind of disorder related to the intellectual disability. This disability are in different form -mild to profound. In this article we are going to discuss about the intellectual ability, it cause and diagnosed.

Introduction.

Some child are slow learner. They learn the things very late but they do. But when the child is not able to perform the milestone of their age it could be matter of rethink. The child could have some kind of intellectual disability.

Intellectual disability, formerly labeled “mental retardation,” is defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as “significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.

Intellectual disability has limitations in two areas-

  • Intellectual functioning- in this a person’s ability to learn reason make decisions and solve problems can be affected. The intellectual function is also known as IQ.
  • Adaptive behavior- in these day-to-day life skills can be affected as communication, taking care of yourself, and interacting with others.

 Sign of Intellectual disability in children-

  • Difficulty in rolling over,  walking late,  sitting up, crawling. trouble in talking , Feeding themselves, problem-solving and logical thinking. Other problems can be a mood disorder, autism, motor skills, anxiety, etc.

  Cause-

  • Genetic conditions

intellectual disability could be gentic. One of the both parents have same disability such as Down syndrome and Fragile X syndrome which  innated in the offspring. 

  • Problem during pregnancy and childbirth

Due ro some complicaion during the  pregency or birth, the brain’s nerve get damage or lack of oxygen.  This cause the intellectual disability in the child 

  • Illness or injury

Sometime child suffer from high fever, measles and head injuries could be the reason of intellectual disability.

  • Environmental influence: 

Environment of the mother during pergnancy or after birth the tension environment of home leads intellectual disability.

  • None of the above-  in some cases children who are facing this disability the cause is unknown.

 Prevention-

  • Time to time ultrasound during pregnancy.

During the pregnancy mother should be go for ultrasound time to time and take care of her health. 

  • Not drink during pregnancy,  parental care,  taking a parental vitamin.- 

Drinking, smoking and drugs during the pregancy leads multiple complication and fetal alochol syndrome in the child. The would be mother should ignoure the alcohol during pregnancy and take vitamin and mineral which are required in brain development of child.

  • Vaccinated against certain infections And diseases.

The mother and new born should be properly vaccinated againsr the certain infection and disease. Some virus directly attacked on brain and brain nerves (measles). It is important that child is vaccinated so the anti-bodies can support immune system of the child.

  • Genetic testing if there is a history of a genetic disorder in families.

The parents should go with the history of the family. If their is such cases in their family they must consult to doctor to prevent the child from the same disability.

 Diagnosed-

  • Through testing like blood tests, urine tests,  imagining tests, etc.
  • Counseling with parents and children for testing intelligence and behavior.

 Services-

  • Early Intervention Program-  speech therapy,  occupational therapy,  Physical therapy, family counseling training, nutrition services.
  • Disabilities Education Act-  special schools.  parents and educators work together to create an individualized education program (IEP).

Conclusion

The intellectual disability is known as mental retardation. It could be mild or profound. ID could be gentic or cause of illiness and injuires. Diagnosed is really simple. We need to watch out the behaviour of the child and consult to expert.