Many modern-day scientists see themselves as the first to create all the technological advancements we use today. Yet many of the so-called discoveries are nothing more than re-inventions created by examining the knowledge of the ancients. Many things related to science and invention have their origins in the thoughts and imagination of the sages of Ancient India. Indian culture has evolved over the ages by India’s ancient Rishis, who at the banks of its holy rivers had ‘discovered’ the Vedic literature – the very foundation of Indian civilization. The term ‘Rishi’ originally denoted the composers and singers of Vedic hymns. However, the Rishi is also a ‘sage’ to whom the Gods revealed the Vedas (knowledge of the eternal truths about the Creator, His creation and means to preserve it).Some lost works of science by Indian sages are-
Acharya Sushruta – Father of Surgery
Acharya Sushruta was a great Indian Physician and was known to be as the Father of Surgery or Father of Plastic Surgery. The Sushruta Samhita is one of the most important survived ancient texts on medicine and it is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda. He was the world’s first surgeon who performed complicated surgeries 2600 years ago.The Sushruta Samhita has 184 chapters containing descriptions of 1,120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparation based on animal sources. It describes thoroughly the surgical techniques of making incisions, extractions of foreign body or particles, how to probe, excisions, tooth extraction, how to remove prostate gland, dilation of Urethral stricture, vesicolithotomy, hernia surgery, how to do C-section (Caesarian for baby delivery), laparotomy, management of intestinal obstruction, perforated intestines and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum and the principle of fracture management. He also classified the eye diseases including cataract surgery.It is interesting to note that when surgery was not even heard and performed by the other parts of the world, here Sushruta was performing Rhinoplasty and many other challenging operations.
Panini – Father of Linguistics
Panini was an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian and a received scholar in ancient India. He is considered as First Descriptive Linguist and is known as the Father of Linguistics. He is well known for his text Astadhyayi, a Sutra on Sanskrit grammar. He analyzed the noun compounds which is still been followed in the theories of the Indian language. Panini’s comprehensive and scientific theory on grammar is conventionally taken to mark the start of Classical Sanskrit.The Astadhyayi is the oldest linguistic and grammar text of any language and of Sanskrit surviving in its entity. His rules have a reputation for perfection – he described the Sanskrit morphology completely. Panini made use of technical metalanguage consisting of syntax, morphology and Lexicon. This metalanguage is organized according to a series of Meta – rules, some of which are explicitly stated while others can be deduced.The Astadhyayi consists of 3,959 sutras in eight chapters. This text attracted many of the ancient authors to upgrade their text in terms of Language.
Acharya Nagarjuna – Master of Chemical Science
Nagarjuna was a great Indian metallurgist and alchemistHe did his research for around 12 years in the field of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like “Ras Ratnakar”, “Rashrudaya” and “Rasebdramangal” are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. He also discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. He did his experiments especially on mercury. He distinguished between the metals and the sub metals and also between solvents and soluble. He stated that Mercury could dissolve all metals. He also invented the processes of “Distillation” and “Calcinations”. He was the first person in the planet to use a Mercury as medicine. He found five types of mercury: red and grey were good; yellow, white or multi colored had so much of bad qualities and this should use as a medicine after several treatments.Alchemist or today what we called as Chemist was the Gifts for Nagarjuna. He made several discoveries which was the path to the other discovers to lead in this field.
Baudhayana – Discovered Pythagoras Theorem
Baudhayana was a great Mathematician, who was also called a priest. He is the author of the Sulba Sutra which contained several important mathematical results. He discovered the several concepts in mathematics which was later rediscovered by the other scientist in the western world. The value of the pie was discovered by him. Today all know how to use the pie and where to use (calculating the area and the circumference of a circle). He also discovered Pythagoras Theorem in Sulba Sutra. He provided how to find a circle whose area is the same as that of a square. The other theorems includes the diagonals of rectangle bisect with each other, diagonals of rhombus bisect at right angles, area of square formed by joining the mid points of a square is half of original.The mathematics given in the Sulba Sutras is there to enable the accurate construction of altars needed for sacrifices. It is clear from the writing that Baudhayana must have been a skilled craftsman. He was a great Practitioner.
Acharya Aryabhata – Motions of the Solar System
Acharya Aryabhata was the first mathematician astronomer from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy and is not an unknown name. His major work on Aryabhatiya was very successful. It is extensively referred in the Indian mathematical literature and has been survived to modern times.
Acharya Aryabhata correctly stated that the earth rotates about its axis dailyr. He also stated that the motion of the stars are being observed just because the earth is rotating. He was also succeeded in explaining the geocentric model of the Solar System. The positions and periods of the planet was calculated relative to uniformly moving points. He stated that the Mercury and Venus move around the earth at the same speed as of the sun. He was also succeeded in explaining eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on earth. He also mentioned Units of Time or the Sidereal rotation that earth takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 second to complete one revolution and the sidereal year has 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes and 30 seconds which in turn adds an extra one day every after four years which is called a leap year.Calendric calculation which was devised by him is still being used in India for Practical purposes for fixing the Hindu calendar. India’s first satellite Aryabhata and the lunar crater Aryabhata are both named in his honor.
Maharishi Bharadwaj –Invention of the First Airplane of Earth
In 1875, the Vymaanika Shaastra, a 4th Century BC text written by Sage Bharadwaj was discovered in a temple in India. The book greatly deals with the operation of ancient vimanas and included information on steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightning and how to switch the drive of solar energy or some other form of energy.
One of the chapter will reveal the secrets of constructing aeroplanes that cannot be broken or cut, that is indestructible, that is fire resistant. It also deals with the secret of making planes motionless and invisible. It also describes how to defeat the enemy planes etc. as per the Sage Bharadwaj the vimanas were classifies as per the Yugas. During the period of Krita Yuga, Dharma was establishes firmly. The pushpak Vimana which was used by Ravan was an Aerial vehicle. He used this vehicle to kidnap Sita from jungle and took him to his Kingdom Srilanka. Ramayana was during the Treta Yug in which the Vimanas were highly discovered. During this period “Laghima” gave them the power to lighten their vehicle do they can travel freely in the air.In present Kaliyuga both Mantra and Tantra Shakti are almost vanished from the earth and so the ability to control vehicle has also been gone. Today the artificial vehicles are built which is called as Kritaka Vimanas.