It all started thousand of years ago , when the human civilization came into existence . Agriculture was a key to survival . People were farming for there domestic purpose , not for the others .
As the civilization started to grow accustomed of agriculture , they grew food in surplus that enabled people to live in cities. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world.
The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering.
It was the beginning of different civilization in different parts of the World. From those civilizations , one of them was our’s The Indus Valley Civilization . Vedic literature provides some of the earliest written record of agriculture in India. Rigveda hymns , describes plowing, fallowing, irrigation, fruit and vegetable cultivation.
Some of the ancient and historical evidence suggests rice and cotton were cultivated in the Indus Valley.
Agriculture : In India and World today .
India ranks second worldwide in farm outputs. As per 2018, agriculture employed Indian work force and contributed 17–18% to country’s GDP.
In 2016, agriculture and allied sectors like animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries accounted for 15.4% of the GDP (gross domestic product) with about 41.49% of the workforce in 2020.India ranks first in the world with highest net cropped area followed by US and China.The total agriculture commodities export was US $ 3.50 billion in March – June 2020.
Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58% of India’s population. Share of agriculture and allied sectors in gross value added (GVA) of India at current prices stood at 17.8 % in FY20.
During 2019-20 crop year, food grain production reached a record of 296.65 million tonnes. In 2020-21, Government of India is targeting food grain production of 298 million tonnes.
India is among the 15 leading exporters of agricultural products in the world. Agricultural export from India reached US$ 38.54 billion in FY19 and US$ 35.09 billion in FY20.
Agriculture is an important industry in the United States. The agriculture industry, which includes both crops and livestock, is responsible for producing most of the world’s foods and fabrics. Agriculture impacts so many things that it’s hard to imagine a world without this important industry.
Schemes and Initiatives
Due to the high requirement of agriculture . It is important for the government to take initiatives and provide better infrastructure to the farmers. However , the required level of investment for the development of marketing, storage and cold storage infrastructure is estimated to be huge.
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), established in 1905, was responsible for the search leading to the “Indian Green Revolution” of the 1970s. The Union Minister of Agriculture is the president of the ICAR. The Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute develops new techniques for the design of agricultural experiments, analyses data in agriculture, and specialises in statistical techniques for animal and plant breeding.
Schemes by government for Indian agriculture :
- Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme.
- Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP)
- Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)
- Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)
- National Agriculture Market (e-NAM)
- Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maandhan yojana.
- Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
- Kisan Credit Card (KCC) scheme.
- Pashu Kisan Credit Card Scheme.
- PM-Kisan Scheme.
Agriculture sector is one of the prominent sector in India as well as all over the world . India is becoming self – sufficient in pulses and other crops .
Gone are the days , when India was unable to provide sufficient amount of food to the citizens . Gone are the days , when people used to think agriculture was not as important as other sectors . Gone are the days , when people used to think less of farmers . And gone are the days , when people were less educated about agriculture.